Андрей Илларионов (aillarionov) wrote,
Андрей Илларионов
aillarionov

Декларация принципов военного правительства Чили. Часть III

Окончание. Начало здесь.


III. An Inspiration that is Nationalistic, Realistic and Purposeful

While stating these principles whose validity is universal, the Government is seeking those factors within Chile today that will support its philosophical and ideological outlook. This demands a fusion of the important values implicit in our history and tradition with the new qualities of the contemporary world in which Chile exists. This leads us to the following conclusions:

 

1. The fundamental purpose of reconstruction: to build Chile into a great nation

Emerging from a long period of ideological messianism preaching petty hatreds, the Government of Chile, from an emphatically nationalistic point of view, invites its fellow countrymen to overcome mediocrity and internal division to build Chile into a great nation! With this objective in view, it has proclaimed repeatedly that it holds national unity as its most cherished objective, and rejects any outlook that may accept or encourage irreconcilable antagonism between social classes.

The spiritual integration of the country will be the basis upon which it will progress in economic development, justice, and peace, and recover the leading position which the creators of our republic gave it within the continent. The strongest inducement to awaken patriotism — that deep love of a united and great country — in the heart of every Chilean is surely the resolve to vindicate again the examples presented by our history with its leaders, heroes, teachers, and statesmen. Foreign creeds, a foreign cultural invasion, party interests, selfishness, and antagonisms deliberately fostered between social classes are conspiring against this unity.

 

2. National planning system and national project

To build Chile into a great nation, it will be the duty of the State to draft a "National Project',' creating a feasible and desirable image for the republic, contemplating its long-term development and taking into account the efficient use of our real potentialities.

For this purpose, and without going beyond the limits of state action, as outlined when discussing the principle of conditional supervision, the State will draft a National Planning System which, starting from a National Project, will integrate procedures, institutions, and organizations to ensure reaching national goals within the framework of governmental policy. This system will coordinate and implement the plans of the various elements within it, taking into consideration both medium and short-term objectives.

Such a national planning system will overcome the traditional lack of coordination between development, planning, and national security, incorporating the latter as a vital part of the broad-based and integrated scheme of global national development.

 

3. An authoritarian, impersonal and just government

Guided by the inspiration of Portales, the Government of Chile will energetically apply the principle of authority and drastically punish any outburst of disorder or anarchy. It will exercise power impersonally and avoid every type of petty sectarian interest. From its position above all private groups of any type, it will ban the use of influence, protect the weak from abuse, and will act as an honest arbitrator without favoritism for justice and the common good.

 

4. The values and style of the nationalist government

Chilean nationalism, rather than being an ideology, is a code of living, the genuine expression of the nation and of the soul of its people. In keeping with this idea, Chile's government will always prize the broad principle over sectarian doctrine, achievement over programs, the spirit of morality over the letter of the law, shrewdness over ideology, and reality over the deceitful words. The nationalist government recognizes and proclaims the following as fundamental values of the national spirit:

 

a) justice and equality before the law. Without privilege or exception all must comply with the law, and all who transgress will receive equal and impartial punishment. Furthermore, it is an urgent necessity to expand this equality before the law into a true equality of opportunity in life, where the only inequalities to be tolerated are those placed on an individual by his Creator, and the limits of his individual merit.

 

b) the restoration of pride in wholehearted effort, the only true road to progress and the personal fulfillment of the human being. For decades political demagogues have preached to the people that doctrinal formulas could substitute for work as a means of economic development. Furthermore, longstanding abuses in compensating thousands of Chileans for their efforts have blurred the inherent dignity of work in the national conscience. Both faults must be corrected, and it must be understood that since the welfare of Chile is a collective responsibility, there is no excuse for parasitism or idleness.

 

c) the creation of a morality based on merit and personal effort. National politics, lately characterized by low standards and mediocrity, has developed an outlook where personal success has frequently been considered as something negative, to be hidden, something for which an individual must "apologize'.' To lead the country towards national greatness we must conceive a new outlook which will recognize the merit of public distinction and reward to those who deserve it, be it for labor output, production, study, or intellectual creation. The State thus stresses that the fulfillment of one's duty is the true way in which each individual may serve society, and that national solidarity, far from excluding the healthy spirit of competition among those similarly employed, must stimulate it as a valuable instrument for collective effort. We seek a morality based on effort and reward, not only for individual work, but also for outstanding efficiency and civic spirit among groups and trade unions.

 

d) sobriety and austerity among those who govern as a symbol of the best in our national traditions. Chile has always demanded that authority set an example, and has respected in spite of political differences those rulers whose lives have been personal evidence of civic virtue. Fully aware of this, the Government is setting that example of self-denial so necessary for national reconstruction, for only thus can they expect that every Chilean will absolutely fulfill his duty, including the acceptance of his own and his family's share of the inevitable collective sacrifice.

 

e) the restoration of non-political status to the public administration. The custom of infusing party politics into public administration resulted in political favoritism, inefficiency, and the f absence of a national state policy. As the Government has announced, any public employee who uses his position to further party interests will be dismissed, whatever branch of the public administration or related services he belongs to. With the same motive, a radical reform of the public administration will take place making it a reputable, important career or school for public service, subject to the general rules of absolute political non-involvement just as members of our judiciary must function.

 

5.  A code of justice respectful of human rights: a guide for the present government

Chile has always lived within a juridical order. The majesty of the law has been an inevitable force in our social development. Furthermore, legal order has always been the reflection of the deep regard Chileans feel for the spiritual dignity of the human being and for his rights. The heart of Chilean democracy is to be found in that respect for human rights.

Another important characteristic of our legal tradition has been respect for freedom of thought and the right to dissent. Both must be preserved in the legal state which the September 11th movement intends to reestablish, and which, basically, have been preserved within the scope of the emergency measures presently governing this State. Human rights must be strengthened, so they may be effectively enjoyed by all, and all may truly have an equal chance. The right to dissent must be preserved, but the experience of recent years shows the need to subject it to acceptable limits. Never again must a naive democracy allow within its midst organized groups acting under the guise of misunderstood pluralism, to foster guerrilla violence to attain power or, feigning a respect for democracy, to further a doctrine or morality whose objective is the construction of a totalitarian state. For this reason, Marxist parties and movements will no longer be admitted into our civic life.

It should be clear, then, that Chile is not neutral in her relationship to Marxism. Her concept of the individual in relation to society, fundamentally opposed to that of Marxism, makes this impossible. The present Government neither fears nor hesitates to declare itself anti-Marxist. This is no negative attitude; it is, in fact, Marxism which denies the most fundamental values of true civilization. In politics or morality, just as in mathematics, the denial of a negative implies an AFFIRMATIVE. Anti-Marxism implies, therefore, the positive affirmation of the freedom and dignity of the human being.

 

6.     A new and modern institutionally: the task of the present government

Within the framework outlined above, the Government of Chile has taken upon itself the historic mission of giving Chile new governmental institutions that will embody the profound changes occurring in modern times. Only thus will it be possible to provide our democracy with solid stability, cleansing our democratic system of the vices which made its destruction easy. This, far from being a mere corrective task, will open the gate to new, creative fields. The most important factor of that new instrumentality will be the decentralization of power, both functionally and territorially, thereby enabling the country to advance toward a technocratic society with true social participation.

 

a) Functional decentralization: political and social power.

The new unit, which is now being created, will distinguish between social and political power clearly discriminating between those who hold the power and the manner in which it is exercised.

Political power or the power to take decisions in matters of general interest to the nation is, properly speaking, the function of governing the country.

Social power, on the other hand, must be understood as the power of the intermediate groups of society to develop with legitimate autonomy toward their specific goals as a means of influence to delimit or enrich the activities of the political power.

Because of the continuous erosion produced in our country by demagogues over many year and because of systematic destruction of all aspects of our national life inflicted by Marxist since 1970, the Armed Forces, in keeping with their classical doctrine and in fulfillment of their duty toward our survival as a nation, were obliged to take over complete political power on September 11, 1973. In so doing, they overthrew an unlawful and immoral government which had failed. They did this in response to nationwide urgings which are today expressed in the support granted to the new regime by the majority of the population.

The Armed Forces have set no time limit on their stay in government; the task of morally, institutionally, and materially rebuilding the country requires a prolonged and profound effort. Even further, and most categorically, this government has no intention of limiting itself to a merely administrative role, providing a breathing space between two party governments. In other words, Chile is not going through a period of truce, prior to restoring power to those same politicians who were so responsible, by act or omission, for the virtual destruction of the country. It is the hope of the Government to inaugurate a new stage in our national destiny, breaking ground for new generations of Chileans raised in a school of healthy civic habits.

Nevertheless, although the Government sets no date, it will, in due time, hand over political power to whomever the people may elect by a universal, free, secret, and informed vote.

Do not take this to mean that the Armed Forces will disassociate themselves from whichever government follows them, just to watch the outcome as mere spectators. On the contrary, the President of the Government has said that he considers part of its mission to inspire a new and great movement; this is already emerging as a result of the present situation, and it will carry forward into the future, solidly and permanently, the efforts of this government.

The Government calls upon all Chileans who wish to participate in the era of national reconstruction to surmount former divisions and factions, and become part of that great national unity movement which is being born, and which will usher in the future.

Social power must now be considered; it is expected to develop into the most important organic channel of public expression. Chile has a long tradition of social organization going back to its Hispanic origin. The community councils, the autonomous municipalities, the labor unions and trade guilds at all levels are proof showing the Chileans have had a continuous commitment to their social organizations, as required by their historic and social development. It is essential that the municipalities recover their highly important role in local political and social organizations for which only they are equipped, being at the immediate service of the family and the individual, and which is incompatible with the political influences to which they have been subjected.

To improve and develop a genuine social power it is necessary to assure the independence and freedom from politics of all intermediate groups between the individual and the State, especially of the various federations formed by labor, employers, professionals, or students. Since the principle of conditional supervision, already stated, demands that such entities act autonomously for their specific purposes without the State absorbing their control, it is unacceptable that their objectives should be distorted by turning them or their boards into instruments to further political party interests. Therefore, all political party interference, direct or indirect, shall be expressly forbidden in the election or activities of union leadership. It is vitally important to understand that this depoliticization is the only possible manner in which unions and other intermediate organizations may become authentic means of social participation, and thus fulfill a hope which is truly in keeping with our times. Social participation cannot be discussed if the entities which should serve as the channels for the true expression of the feelings of the organized population are turned into docile spokesmen at the instruction of some political party, and are often inspired by the latter's petty electoral interests. These same requirements are applicable to the municipalities.

 

It is necessary to open the way for a new concept of trade unionism. Designed to gather together individuals linked by common interests and activities, the protection of its members has been, and still is, the primary reason for the existence of these unions. Without disregarding this major function which is justified and natural, two other ideas, so far overlooked by Chilean unionism, have recently begun to demand recognition and must receive attention. First, those union activities undertaken to obtain rights and privileges must be exercised responsibly and thoughtfully, with the understanding that the State must harmonize the natural aspirations of each sector of society with the national interest according to the real possibilities of our economy. Second, this recovery of rights and privileges must not mark the limit of the unions' task. In a modern society the unions are expected to become vehicles, contributing technically to a wide understanding of political or governmental decisions. Advantage must be taken of the fact that, within a given union, persons are to be found who perform, with specialized knowledge and identical activities. In a world where problems are becoming increasingly more technical and less ideological, cooperation in technical matters emerges with new and wide importance for Chilean labor and union movements.

When creating the necessary mechanism to harness this social power to our civic life, it will be the task of the new governmental apparatus to ensure that means of expression shall no longer be by threat or arbitrary action. The institutionalization and consolidation of an authentic social power, as described above, must be considered the most efficient means of transforming Chile into a technocratic society where informed opinion shall prevail over slogans, a society with a real participation where the voice of the organized population will emerge without political distortions and free from impoverishing pettiness. Our democracy will then be organic, social, and with fair participation.

 

b) Territorial decentralization; the division of the country into regions.

A territorial decentralization, whose scope will be far more than simply administrative, follows naturally from the principles analyzed above.

The government has already defined effective geographic zones for a regionalization in keeping with Chile's modern requirements, which will replace an artificial and outdated division into provinces and departments.

In the planning of each region, its population, security, geography, productivity, and services have been taken into account thus allowing the various zones ample initiative and reasonable autonomy within the social and economic development of the region. The union federations, which already exist in most parts of the country, must appreciate the important role open to them to play in facilitating the application of the concepts of social participation and technical development in the regional or territorial plan. They must do this by assisting and coordinating the similar tasks which fall to the unions to undertake within their own areas in a strictly functional way.

 

7. The basic objectives of national reconstruction: an accelerated economic development, effective social progress and a scale of moral values which ensures every individual his due.

After reorganizing its economy, destroyed to its very roots by the Marxist regime, Chile has to advance rapidly and decisively for without this, it will be impossible to satisfy the hopes for security of our countrymen, especially the poor. This demands a clear understanding that the only realistic way to reach these objectives lies in a large increase of mining, agricultural, and industrial production, which requires national and foreign investments.

With regard to foreign investments, the present Government reaffirms, "It is not a true nationalism to reject foreign investment, but to subject it to conditions which ensure, primarily, that it is beneficial to Chile'.' (Speech by General Pinochet, 10/11/73).

Economic development is a challenge requiring authority and discipline in production and labor customs. In turn, this demands practical methods suited to our character. Chile must guide its production towards those areas in which it is most efficient and competitive with other nations. This is especially urgent on a continent in which projects for increased economic integration are continually being proposed. With this in view, the present Government considers the reactivation of Chilean agriculture, for so long in a state of depression, a task requiring the highest priority.

The increase in mining production, since September 11,1973, is another favorable symptom of a trend, which is important to strengthen.

A country, which intends to base its economic development on a recognition of the rights of private property up to the level of but excluding strategic and essential products, and also aware of the State planning that this area requires, must promote an economic policy which grants the consumer active participation. It must recognize the value of competition between producers and distributors within limits clearly established and guaranteed by authority.

The achievement of rapid economic development must not, however, be considered an end in itself. The accumulation of a national fortune only provides the means for the well-being of the inhabitants of the country, and it must be enjoyed fairly by all. The indices of economic growth, national production, and per capita income growth must all be accompanied by the constant efforts of the State to transform these increases into social progress. As expressed by General Pinochet in his speech of 10/11/73, the present Government reiterates:

"Economic development and social progress are inseparable. When the demagogues sacrifice the first, the social benefits they grant become a mere illusion, for they are only distributing poverty. On the other hand, when social progress is held back, economic development is not translated into justice, but stirs up undesirable tensions'.'

Social development must distinguish between true social improvements for the workers, because they imply greater progress for the country and greater justice for themselves; and those ill-named "conquests',' which merely conceal excuses for idleness and privilege, a country like Chile cannot accept. For example, among the first improvements which the present government intends to strengthen, may be mentioned those benefits received for uninterrupted work attendance, and the family allowance for manual workers which, for the first time in our history, the Government of Chile has equalized with the allowance received by white collared workers. Among the "conquests" is to be found legislation which allows some people to retire on pension at thirty five years of age, while allowing others to receive up to four pensions simultaneously. These so-called improvements will be pruned without mercy.

On this subject, the present government gives great importance to a legal project at present awaiting approval: "The statute governing the organization of enterprises, the development and integration of labor, the promotion and management of investments'.' This will establish methods of effective participation of workers in the enterprises in which they serve, while also maintaining the flexibility that such a complex plan requires and including necessary guarantees for the investor.

Nevertheless, the deep moral and economic crisis, which today shakes the developed West, is a warning bell to us to take note that material security is not the only factor in achieving a balanced society in which man may develop all his potential. As we have said, the materialism which corrodes consumer societies illustrates the sort of security which does not assist man's search for perfection, but forces him into a race seeking a wealth which dominates him and, in the end, leaves his spirit empty. It enslaves man rather than liberates him.

It would be presumptuous of us to claim that Chile has a solution for such a complex and dramatic problem. But at the moment, when it sets in motion the economic reconstruction of the country, the present government recognizes its responsibility to take this problem into account. Any realistic effort to overcome it must be based primarily on an education which stimulates a set of moral and spiritual values in keeping with our Chilean and Christian tradition, and which retains a perspective about man's final destiny.

With this in view, we believe that education within the grasp of all, respecting freedom of teaching and one's innermost feelings, will strengthen the understanding of every Chilean towards his country, its geography, its history, and its people. From this rediscovery of the roots of our nationality, values and virtues will emerge which will have much to contribute when we face this difficult challenge.

 

8. Chile: a nationalism which looks towards universality

In an increasingly interdependent world, Chile's government maintains that its character is nationalistic, confident in the knowledge that, in spite of its varied geography, our country is historically, ethnically, and culturally a homogeneous unit. We do not claim Chile to be superior or inferior to other nations. We maintain it is different, insofar as it has a clearcut image of its own. But this search for a rebirth, from the very depths of our national soul, does not imply that the present government expounds a nationalism belittling that universal point of view demanded by the contemporary world.

Chile's government will seek improved relations and international understanding, especially with friendly nations, in keeping with strict adherence to international treaties, non-intervention in the affairs of other nations, and the right to self-determination of every nation, as traditionally accepted by our Foreign Office. Given this feeling, the present government repeats its wish to maintain international relations with all nations whose govern­ments do not take it upon themselves to intervene, without warrant, in our internal affairs.

With a responsible outlook debarring us from any absurd idea of leadership beyond our own frontiers, Chile's international policy is directed towards the development of "national growth" the effective ability and strength of the State to defend and promote its interests before all nations. For this task, it is indispensable to restore our national dignity in all areas, to restore to our country the worldwide prestige it traditionally enjoyed, and which the Marxist government did so much to weaken.

An outward-looking Chilean nationalism must combine the western historic and cultural tradition which binds us to European civilization with the geo-economic fact that places our country within the New World, and specifically within Hispanic America, while at the same time opening untapped perspectives toward other civilizations and cultures across the Pacific, whose possibilities and wealth must be harnessed to Chile's advantage.

 

9. The family, womanhood and youth: pillars of national reconstruction

Finally, the present government feels the whole task it has outlined must rest solidly on the family as a school for moral upbringing, of self-sacrifice and generosity to others, and of untarnished love of country.

Within the family, womanhood finds fulfillment in the greatness of her mission, and thus becomes the spiritual rock of the nation. It is from her that youth is born who, today more than ever, must contribute its generosity and idealism to Chile's task. The courage shown by women and the young during the past few years, as bastions of the civic movement, which found its climax in the military pronouncement of September 11th, must now be turned into a patriotic fiber to face the hard sacrifice ahead, and be transformed into a creative force to change a deep national hope into reality.

 

AUGUSTO PINOCHET UGARTE

Army General Commander in Chief of the Army President of the Governing Junta

 

JOSE T. MERINO CASTRO

Admiral

Commander in Chief of the Navy

 

GUSTAVO LEIGH GUZMAN

Air Force General

Commander in Chief of the Air Force


CESAR MENDOZA DURAN

Director General of the Carabineros

Tags: Чили, идеология, коммунизм, либерализм, национализм
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